The Medicinal Wine Institute’s Principles governing healthy wine-drinking

The Medicine Wine Institute’s Twelve Rules on Holistic Wine Drinking

Beneficial and deleterious effects of drinking quality wine depends on many variables, including, but not limited to what foods and other drinks are consumed at or around the same time the wine is gently downed,  genetic polymorphism of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes,  medications which may interfere with the activity of the metabolizing enzymes and/or with the absorption of ethanol, age-tested botanicals and  many other factors. So each case is unique.

In this perspective, the Medicinal Wine Institute has identified multiple principles and techniques that can help the wine enthusiast to choose the right wine for his or her genetic constitution and in terms of ongoing metabolic and physiological disorders. Furthermore, these principles and-or rules can also help to mitigate excessive drinking and deleterious addiction while enhancing wine’s health and longevity benefits.

1). Light exercises and hydration before or during the wine experience

Light exercises or walking helps to maintain one’s metabolism, thanks to which the liver’s processing of the  wine’s ethanol and its major metabolic, acetaldehyde, will be more effective. Yoga would also work, either before drinking wine or at the same time ! See Exhibit A 

Because alcohol is a diuretic, proper hydration is also indicated. Certain water sources like osmose reverse filtered water as well as distilled water would not be indicated because these waters are deprived of key electrolytes. Similarly, municipal water is usually too toxic and laden with microbiota-damaging chlorine. Thus, Spring water or structured water that come from fruits and vegetable, including coconut water, would be best.

2). Chronobiology (timing) and Biological Rhythms

The rate of alcohol elimination and the absorption of wine’s key virtues vary with the time of day. This biological process is related to the body temperature cycle and the body’s circadian “clocks”. Circadian clocks  are ongoing both inside cells and in each organ, the master switch of which is located within the hypothalamus, in particular the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (1).

In this perspective, there are specific times during which the body’s dehydrogenase, catalase and detoxification break-down enzymes work better. For example, drinking and driving at night is not indicated because wine’s ethanol and acetaldehyde break-down enzymes are not well activated during this time, that which may lead to impaired judgement and a car accident.

Likewise with wine’s probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols, these and other molecules also have their preferred ” optimal timing”. Therefore, timely drinking is relevant insofar as safety, health optimization  and longevity are concerned.

3). Milk Thistle, Vitamins and Antioxidants Prep.

Before or during the wine drinking ritual, especially if the wine buff feels that there may be a risk that he or she may go overboard, it would be wise to ingest  vitamin B supplementation that contains thiamine, B6 and folate along with vitamin C, all of which are necessary co-factor for the liver’s detox pathways and the body’s general metabolism to function correctly.

For example, organic strawberries being rich in both Vitamin B 6 and Vitamin C would be indicated as a pre-wine entrée. Acetaldehyde, ethanol’s central metabolite, is a highly unstable compound that quickly forms free radical structures which are highly toxic if they are not quenched by antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Hence, the Institute’s rationale in ingesting an abundance of vitamin C rich  fruits before and during the wine experience and all the more so that the vitamin C in grapes is transformed during “must” fermentation into tartaric acid and other metabolites. (Source) One of my favorite Vitamin C fruit that I like to combine with light to moderate wine drinking are organic fresh grapes. (1b)

Thereafter, the wine drinker could munch on some raw dehydrated kale chips (rich in folate) and organic pistachios or raw sunflower seeds, both of which are rich in Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine). As a bonus, the addition of this vitamin will also help to avoid Wernicke encephalopathy, Beri Beri and Alzheimer’s disease (Source) while reinforcing liver function as well as ATP-based carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. (2)

Other foods that contain these and other nutrients, in particular glutathione producing ones, would also help. (During the MW Institute’s coaching session and workshops, we go into the details about all of this). However,  when quality food is unavailable, supplementation would be better than being deficient in these nutrients.

Among other supplements and herbs, the wine enthusiast can also load up on milk thistle tea or use silymarin tinctures or supplementation. This preventive action helps to protect the liver, especially for those drinkers who have genetic flaws with regard to liver enzymes and-or tend to go overboard and consume too much wine. For the details and evidence of milk thistle’s mechanisms of action with regard to the liver’s protection, please see the MW Institute’s book.

4). Food Synergy and the Pairing of Wines

The major factor governing the absorption rate of alcohol is whether the wine is taken on an empty stomach or together with or after a meal. When food is present, the rate of alcohol oxidation tapers down. (3) Furthermore, when the meal is rich in  fiber-based vegan or Mediterranean foods, wine assists the body’s metabolism and homeostasis systems.  The MW Institute therefore recommends to eat light foods rich in fiber and vitamins in conjunction with drinking quality wine, especially with Mediterranean meals. Olives, nuts or mangos would work as wine snacks. For our preferred scientifically-established wine health-enhancing snacks, consider scheduling a wine medicine coaching session 🙂

Although there are some great rosé and white wines, including Muscat varietals which can have over 40 monoterpenes (Muscat varietals are some of the oldest vineplants in the world), (3b) the MW Institute recommends especially the pairing of red wines with either a vegan or Mediterranean type diet. The most important polyphenols in red wine are resveratrol, anthocyanins, catechins, and tannins (proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins) all of which marry well with  fiber-rich plant-based foods. Pairing light, full bodied and musky “muscat” type of  white wines with “happy hour” health-enhancing wine snacks can also be envisioned.

The Synergy and the pairing of wines with the right diet for one’s constitution, in particular with a Mediterranean type and-or plant-based type Diet rich in fiber, super nutrients and phyto-chemicals is important if one desires an optimal wine experience and extended longevity, if only because many “cheap” wines contain heavy metals and toxicants like lead, cadmium, plastic residues (phthalates) and glyphosate, all of which that can hinder the People’s  120 years healthy Lifespan birthright. (3c).

When the body gets saturated with heavy metals, deleterious radiation like those that come  from cell-phone towers get amplified, thereby becoming even more toxic to living cells. (4). While wine can help with radiation protection,  when the wine is not organic or “clean”, its heavy metals and toxicants worsens   radiation sickness.

Migraines can also come from bad quality wine which have too many sulfites and other deleterious chemicals. When eating a fiber-rich meal with quality wine, many of the toxicants get picked up by the fiber. A meal rich in key detoxification nutrients like glutathione and quercetin  will also help to remove  toxicants from cheap and-or toxicant-laden wines.

5). Small dosage of quality wine or apple cider-wine vinegar before meals

Contrarily to strong alcoholic beverages and distilled alcohol drinks,  quality wines with low ethanol content are beneficial stimulants of gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. Because most humans after 40 years tend to have less gastric acid secretion, mid-age and elder people tend to break-down proteins inefficiently, thereby becoming deficient in nutrients and metabolic enzymes. Taking couple of table spoons of wine, wine vinegar or apple cider vinegar in quality water before one’s meal will therefore help with gastric acid and gastrin secretions and stimulate appetite. Bitter herbs can also help. The MW Institute strongly recommends this vino intake for most  everyone who experiences digestive issues, in particular for the Generation X and the baby boomer generation.

6). Holistic Intake: Light to Moderate amounts of Quality Wine as needed

After some intense wine swirling, wine bouquet sniffing and wine saliva optimization (Cf the Institute teaching on this process called “dégustation”), slow wine “air-sipping’ is indicated. As Paraclesus and others noted, wine can be a poison, a food or medicine depending on dosage. The wine drinker should therefore know his or her limits.

For those who eat more animal foods, drinking more quality red wine is strongly recommended, if only to mitigate the deleterious effects of animal toxicants, cholesterol, saturated fats and inflammatory metabolites while enhancing the microbiota’s diversity and resilience which tend to thrive more on wine’s polyphenols as well as on plant-based foods rather than animal fats and flesh. (4b)

Wine also helps to boost HDL, thus contributing in the clearing of the atherosclerotic plaque. From the health and longevity viewpoints, Vegans dont need to drink wine as much as omnivores. And women need to drink significantly less than men because female livers have been evolutionarily designed to have fewer dehydrogenase enzymes. Likewise with certain ethnic-diverse people, in particular with regard to a category of blue-eyed blonds in Europe, Native Americans and certain Asians who have alcohol break-down enzyme SNPs.

Calorie-wise, the less ethanol in a wine, the fewer calories.  To verify how many calories are in different drinks, see the National Institutes of Health’s alcohol calories calculator for broad estimates. Alcohol contain about 7 calories per gram, which is almost as much as the most calorie-dense nutrient of all: fat, which has 9 calories per gram. Carbs yield around 4 calories per gram. A five ounce glass of 12 percent alcohol wine will yield about 150 calories.  See the “alcohol by volume”, or ABV indication that is listed on ethanol containing bottles. Drinking water, especially carbonated water during the wine experience will both soften and sharpen the alcohol’s impact. This is why champagne’s bubbles will give the champagne a stronger psychoactive feel, see below more more details.

7). Avoid combining wines with Hard alcohol, Toxicants, Medication, and Soft Drinks

There are many wine combinations that will lead to migraines, stomach aches and other health disorders. Some of these deleterious combinations are associated with hard and distilled alcohol drinks, medication like painkillers, soft drinks, stronger fortified “apéritifs”, cigarettes and the like. (5)

Some “soft drinks” like carbonated Sprite have been shown to be beneficial, but its sugar is unhealthy. Carbonated water would be a safer and more efficient solution. When Tylenol (acetaminophen) is used to mitigate hangovers, this NSAID drug damages the liver and kidneys. When aspirin is used, gut and stomach linings are also damaged. One should therefore consider using more holistic products. (See the MW Institute’s ebook for the details).

8). Quality Viticulture and “Terroir”

For wine’s maceration, vinification and bonification (aging) to be optimal, the vineyard’s soil and milieu (terroir) need to be well drained (like in the Médoc area) and free from harmful toxicants and pesticide residus. They also need to benefit from  rich and diversified nutrients, bacteria, worms, among other elements.

While it may not always be possible for wine to be 100 percent free of toxic residus, the wine drinker should make a conscious effort to verify the winegrower’s viticultural and vinification practices. Among other issues the Institute covers in its coaching sessions and workshops, we have epoxy resin coatings used in many wine vats in the world, the phthalate toxicity of which contributes in the disruption of hormonal signaling. Given the invasion and contamination of the modern Agri-business Model in the entire world,  just about all wines from all countries can be subjected to these plastic vats.  Chinese wine would appear to be the worse in terms of phthalates. (Source)  And American wines would appear to be the worse  for glyphosate, including organic American wines and beer. (Source A)  (Source B)

However, with Holistic medicine, we can significantly help the body to clear both phthalates and glyphosate. So when in doubt about the wine, the wine drinker should schedule a wine coaching session with the Medicinal Wine Institute so that we can teach the coachee what detoxification procedures may be indicated, in particular on the detox value of certain botanicals, supplements, nutrients and other holistic techniques with regard to glyphosates and phthalates, thanks to which wine’s virtues can be retained while wine’s toxicants (for cheap wines) can be cleared.

Organic or biodynamic certified labels are not necessary if the vintner is diligent and conscientious and uses sustainable methods. Quality certification remains nonetheless a first indication that the viticulture practices are optimal and health-promoting. To be on the safe side, it’s best to be informed on the vintner’s vat vinification and pesticide processes. As the Mediterranean food and wine Diet and hundreds of studies have shown for decades, the advantages of wine is still greater than the absence of wine, even if the wine contains some toxicants and microplastics. But the advantages of traditionally made toxicant free wines are much better.

9). Traditionally and Diligently made wine (Vinification)

Traditionally made wine with preferably 3 weeks of “must” maceration where the grapes’ seeds, stems and skins are fermenting  with the grape juice would be the best, especially for grapes that have thick skins and “real” seeds, versus seedless grapes which tend to be the modern grape Industry’s thing.  Among other phyto-chemicals and bioactives, there can be ten times or more resveratrol in a traditionally made wine than in a quickly made industrial wine. Sutainable non toxic (“organic”) Oak Wood, stainless steel and glass  should be used for all fermentation, vinification and bonification processes. (See footnote 3b).

Many exogenous ingredients like sulfur dioxide are allowed to be inserted in the vinification process, (6) including for organic wines. Many of these ingredients are usually not labeled. While added sulfites are usually not toxic for most people, a diligent consumer should inquire and acquire the vintner’s entire viticulture and vinification  ingredients list. (7). With modern agriculture and chemical practices that are based on the engine of the maximization of profits, most of the World’s food and wine supplies can contain deleterious compounds, if only because many of the Government’s regulatory agencies are less concerned about the People’s health than about the Industry’s profits and reelection campaign donations on behalf of many lawmakers. The more the consumer inquires and requests quality wine as it was made centuries ago, the more health-promoting the Wine Industry will become. There are already many ethical and diligent vintners and wine makers who produce great healthy wines. The issue is less “wine” than the sustainable and healthy techniques that are used to produce quality and longevity-enhancing wine.

10). A Happy, “romantic”, spiritual and-or calm “Wine Milieu”

While the best time to drink quality wine is within a specific window of time during the day and during one’s meal, social “happy-hour” wine gatherings in the evening after work can be an exception.

Whatever the case may be, “Joie de vivre” (enjoyment of life), oxygenating movements like dancing or walking, lactic acid modulating breathing, emotionally charged music, good food pairing, light to moderate in terms of wine quantity, oxytocin bonding and neuro-peptide producing social enthusiasm can mitigate this “circadian” or timing element provided most of the MW Institute’s guidance rules are respected. Published proof supports this claim. During the Institute’s workshops and coaching sessions, we go into the details on how oxytocin-based neuropeptides favorably interact with wine.  (8)

11). Drinking wine according to one’s genotype & SNPs

There are some genotypes that have SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms) relating to the break-down of alcohol and other biological processes relevant to wine drinking. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms can be a risk factor for aerodigestive tract cancers, especially when the alcohol content of the wine is high, its constitution “cheap” (laden with toxicants, heavey metals and pesticides) and its downing too frequent. Genetic determinants of ethanol, histamines and acetaldehyde metabolism can influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour, including with regard to migraines. (9)

In about 50% of people of Northeast Asian descent have a dominant mutation in their acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene making this enzyme less effective. (Source) A similar mutation is found in about 5–10% of blond-haired blue-eyed people of Northern European descent. Likewise with some indigenous Native Americans. Small amounts of quality wine with one’s meal is still not necessarily “off the table” for these genotypes, but there are rigorous conditions to respect in order to make the wine experience healthy and enjoyable. (10)

12). Holistic Remedies when the Wine Drinker has gone overboard.

Most of the negative effects of alcohol are caused less by the alcohol (ethanol)  than by ethanol’s central metabolite, acetaldehyde. While badly metabolized acetaldehyde molecules are toxic, there is nothing “unnatural” about these molecules, they are prevalent in Nature, including as a metabolite of fruit ripening, inter alia. (Source)  The issue then is for acetaldehyde molecules to be properly metabolized. It’s when they are not well metabolized that they cause toxic effects including hangovers. Thus, substances which alter the activities of ADH and ALDH would consequently alter the duration of acetaldehyde exposure,  heightening or lessening the toxic effects of alcohol and its main metabolite (acetaldehyde) on the body.

While there are some well known alcohol toxicity enhancers like coca cola, cigarettes and orange juice, what is less known is that there are holistic solutions to both avoid and reverse acetaldehyde deleterious effects while still benefiting from the euphoria, inhibition release and health-inducing effects of quality wine, some of which are based on hydrotherapy, physical therapy, clinical nutrition, bio-molecules, supplements, teas (like spearmint) acupuncture, acupressure, wine glass swirling (10b) and dancing. (Cf Exhibit B) These techniques are taught in the MW Institute’s workshops and-or  explained during the Institute’s coaching sessions. (11)

Discussion

Drinking wine daily or not is specific to the wine drinker, depending on what one eats, on how one lives, lifestyle, one’s gender, one’s genotype and on one’s disease burden. The key is to drink quality wine with one’s meal, at the right time, with the right foods and botanicals, with appreciation and not too much. For example, for most cardiac patients, drinking small to moderate amounts of quality wine most days can significantly help to avoid strokes, Alzheimer’s disease and, among other diseases and symptoms, heart attacks. Drinking in a timely fashion and according to one’s single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are other factors to be considered.

Ethanol Abstinence or having an “ethanol” break (vacation) is illusionary because the body naturally makes ethanol every day, around 3 grams. (Source) Ethanol and its catalytic break-down enzymes have been involved in mamilian evolution for millions of years. (ibid)

The issue is thus less “no wine” than its quality, quantity, synergy and bio-compatibility, including, but not limited to ethanol break-down pathways, methylation, histamine-inducing head-aches among other processes, all of which can be holistically resolved.

The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Low risk Guidelines

Following the WHO’s guidelines can help  avoid the risks from excessive bad quality alcoholic beverages like wine. According to the WHO Experts, to keep health risks from alcohol to a low level it is safest not to drink more than 14 units a week on a regular basis. (Source)

These experts also recommend to spread drinking evenly over three or four days,  thereby having two or three days per week that can  be “alcohol-free”. The Who experts are worried about potential alcohol mis-users. In reality, all animals and humans make ethanol everyday in their digestive tract. The body has evolved over millions of years to be more resilient with the right amount of ethanol while safely catabolizing  (break-down) its metabolites. Be that as it may, for those who tend to be heavy or binge drinkers, it would be best to abstain from all wine or any other ethanol substance during part of the week.

On the other hand, for those wine enthusiasts who drink “holistically”, abiding by the guiding principles mentioned in this piece, drinking a quarter or a half of a glass of quality red wine with one’s Mediterranean or vegan meal can only be beneficial, especially for those who are 40 years old or more, if only to ward off the risks of cardiovascular disorders and sudden cardiac arrest.

For those who have dehydrogenase SNPS, the amount of wine should be reduced to the amount that can be tolerated. Even one or two tablespoons of quality wine in Spring water or in healthy food can be beneficial. Tolerance to quality wine can be built.

Special note on Champagne

If a wine enthusiast wants a quick inhibition-release and euphoric wine blast, drinking quality sparkling wine or a champagne “brut” or “extra brut”  in light to moderate amounts may be indicated. But in small quantities because the bubbles accelerate the alcohol’s absorption in the small intestine and hence, ethanol’s impact on the central nervous system is quicker and sharper. For those who prefer a more mellow and gradual euphoria feel, it’s best to drink champagne with food, in particular with a light Mediterranean type snack. If too much champagne is downed, there are holistic techniques that can be used to mitigate and avoid hangovers.

Alcohol’s Damage Measurement

Excessive drinking and its physiological consequences can be measured with a breath test device, blood draws as well as with tests that measure levels of AST and ALT liver enzymes in the blood serum 6 hours after alcohol consumption. However, by activating holistic and detoxifixation techniques, most wine drinkers can still enjoy their wine while avoiding most if not all of ethanol’s deleterious effects, including hangovers.

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Conclusion

“Until the juice ferments a while in the cask, it isn’t wine. If you wish your heart to be bright, you must do a little work”. RUMI

Consistent evidence shows that the longevity benefits of wine are much greater than not drinking wine.  Different studies show a gain of  five years and more.

“Life expectancy was about 5 years longer in men who consumed wine compared with those who did not use alcoholic beverages”. (J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009 Jul;63(7):534-40)

By following the Medicinal Wine Institute’s Wine-Mediterranean Centenarian Holistic Protocol, we are looking at a gain of over twenty years. (Source). A Life Extension “feat” which is difficult to achieve without quality and moderate wine taking in regularly, like all essential nutrients.

This fact suggests that humans have been evolutionarily designed to fuel themselves not only with fruits and the like, but also with ethanol, which is contained in ripe fruits and especially over-ripe fruits.  When the Milieu is deficient in quick-acting and heat-producing calories,  ripe and over-ripe ethanol containing fruits are favored by primates. (Source)

While it’s been around 45 millions of years that animals have been getting “drunk” with ripe fruits (without apparent “hangovers” characterized by migraines and vomiting), it has been around 10 millions of years ago that the Forces of Evolutionary Nature fine-tuned primates’ ethanol break-down enzymes to near perfection, thanks to which humans have been much more efficient in burning ethanol as a useful calorie fuel. The evidence supporting this piece of allegation can be viewed by mouse-clicking the following Source.

In addition to quality wine’s contribution to Longevity, quality and moderate wine has been proven (with a strong preponderance of the evidence) to be helpful for both the prevention and the reversal of cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obesity, lack of appetite, hormonal problems, bacterial issues, bone loss among many other conditions.

However, to earn many “extra” years of quality Life extension as well as many other health-promoting “gifts” that can help to avoid chronic diseases, the MW Institute’s guidance to holistic drinking should be diligently applied. (12)

As the Institute’s ebook shows, the evidence is strong enough to even suggest that quality wine should be medically prescribed for both Life extension and the resolution of multiple chronic and acute diseases, including this new EMF disorder called “rapid aging syndrome”. The Institute also believes that the weight of the evidence justifies  Medicare and Medicaid to cover both quality wine and wine medicine workshops where patients can learn how to correctly use wine as medicine. If Professor Dean Ornish was able to convince Medicare to cover his Lifestyle nutrition-based workshops, then it is not un-reasonable for the Government’s public health and health-care institutions to also cover medicinal wines and  wine workshops.

Pr. Joubert (Biogerontologist and Medicinal Wine Institute Director)

To learn more

This twelve-pronged wine drinking mini-protocol or guidance is a small sample of the MW Institute general Centenarian “Longevity” wine Protocol which includes activated charcoal and many other techniques. that modulate alcohol breakdown, the ANS and many other biological processes.  For starts, see the Institute’s Five Phases of wine dégustation, as well as the Institute’s analysis on the influence of the wine glass on wine’s olfactory and flavor perception.

Coaching or Workshop

To learn more vital information that could save one’s life from a car accident, health incident, addiction or behavior disorder, consider scheduling a coaching session or taking one of the Institute’s workshops. As a bonus, the coaches will also learn how to optimize one’s longevity and health with quality wine

“Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake.” 1 Timothy 5:23 (Source)

Exhibit A

Yoga and Wine

Exhibit B

When going overboard, one technique to promote ethanol’s break-down is to increase metabolism via dancing, as this squirrel is doing after having ingested in too much fermented pumpkin.

Below, some science entertainment

Reference Notes

(1). The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm. It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms. The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates regulate many different body functions in a 24-hour cycle, using around 20,000 neurons. (Source) In this perspective, many aspects of mammalian behavior and physiology show circadian rhythmicity, including sleep, physical activity, alertness, hormone levels, body temperature, immune function, and digestive activity. The SCN coordinates these rhythms across the entire body, and rhythmicity is lost if the SCN is destroyed.  The SCN maintains control across the body by synchronizing “slave oscillators,” which exhibit their own near-24-hour rhythms and control circadian phenomena in local tissue and organs. (Source)
(1b).  Wine does not contain much in the way of vitamins. Each glass of red wine gives on average the following of your daily, nutritional needs: 1% Vitamin K, 1% Thiamin, 2% Niacin, 3% Riboflavin and 4% Vitamin K. Trace amounts of minerals are also found in wine, in particular the following percentages of the daily adult requirement of minerals: 1% Calcium, 1% Copper, 1%  Zinc, 3% Phosphorus, 4% Iron, 4% Magnesium, 5% Potassium and 10% Manganese. The statistics are similar, but different for white wine. Dr white wine is lower in carbohydrates than dry red wine. On the other hand, wine, in particular red wine is loaded with compounds like antioxidants, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Ethanol and Resveratrol, all of which have proven medical benefits.
(2). Thiamine’s active transport is greatest in the jejunum and ileum, but it can be inhibited by too much alcohol consumption or by folate deficiency. (Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. (2000). Krause’s food, nutrition, & diet therapy (10th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company).
(3). On an empty stomach, any alcoholic beverage like wine gets quickly absorbed within the bloodstream, thereby impacting the central nervous system.  With the presence of food, wine’s ethanol effects will slow down. When both food and wine are present in the stomach, gastric emptying is retarded, thanks to which the absorption of alcohol is reduced.
(3b). The Muscat family of grapes includes over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries. Their colors range from white (such as Muscat Ottonel), to yellow (Moscato Giallo), to pink (Moscato rosa del Trentino) to near black (Muscat Hamburg). Muscat grapes and wines almost always have a pronounced sweet floral aroma. The breadth and number of varieties of Muscat suggest that it is perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety, and there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape variety are descended from the Muscat variety. (Cf. J. Robinson Vines Grapes & Wines pg 183 Mitchell Beazley 1986).  The “musky” aroma of ripe Muscat grapes have been known to attract bees, so if bees have a strong instinct for this grape, it could be extrapolated that it may also be indicated for humans.  Despite the vast diversity in the Muscat family, one common trait that can be seen in most all Muscat members is the characteristic floral, “grapey” aroma note that is caused by the high concentration of monoterpenes in the grapes. More than 40 different monoterpenes have been discovered in Muscat grapes; these include citronellol, geraniol, linalool and nerol. This characteristic “musk” aroma can be best observed in light bodied, low alcohol wines such as Moscato Asti which have not had their bouquet heavily influenced by other winemaking techniques like oak aging, autolysis with yeast, malolactic fermentation or fortification. (Cf. J. Robinson (ed) “The Oxford Companion to Wine” Third Edition pgs 35, 100, 450, 453, 463-466 Oxford University Press 2006).
(3c). Just like Phthalates and PVCs in floor covers that are in schools and day-care centers get into the bloodstream of people including infants (Source),  epoxy resin coatings used on wine vats can also get into the bloodstream of wine drinkers. (Source) More worrisome than phthalates are Monsanto’s glyphosates that have seeped into just about all of the World’s crops, save those traditional farms and wineries that have been all along diligent.  Glyphosates for example stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells,  activates chronic inflammation, leaky gut endocrine-disrupting effects, neurotoxicity to brain cells, reproductive problems, oxidative damage,  modifies sex hormone balance, birth defects etc. Being an antibiotic, glyphosates also destroys beneficial gut bacteria.
(4). Voltage gated calcium and ion channels get affected. Contrarily to ionic radiation with affects genomic stability, wireless radiation affects the cellular membrane’s integrity.
(4b). Diets rich in plant-based materials are associated with greater diversity in the gut microbiome overall, and have a greater abundance of Prevotella, responsible for the long-term processing of fibers, rather than the bile tolerant species. The four dominant bacterial phyla in the human gut are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Most bacteria belong to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Bifidobacterium.  (Source) Other genera, such as Escherichia and Lactobacillus, are present to a lesser extent. Species from the genus Bacteroides alone constitute about 30% of all bacteria in the gut, suggesting that this genus is especially important in the functioning of the host. (Source)
(5). Alcohol can intensify the sedation caused by other central nervous system depressants such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, nonbenzodiazepines/Z-drugs(such as zolpidemand zopiclone), antipsychotics, sedative antihistamines, and certain antidepressants. (Source). These mixtures should be avoided, especially when driving cars or flying planes.
(6). For some sensitive wine drinkers, added sulphites may cause migraines or head-aches. If the quantity of ingested wine is reasonable, then the cause may be that these drinkers may have SNPs (See below). Added sulfites are usually not a problem. But if a wine drinker has migraines after drinking wine, especially with white wines, then drinking wines that have no sulfites  added (or as little as needed) can help. Drinking with a Fiber-rich meal also helps.  White wines are more fragile than red wines, so they tend to have more sulfites. A typical dry white wine may have around 100 mg/L of sulfites whereas a typical dry red wine will have around 50–75 mg/L. Wines with higher sugar content tend to need more sulfites to prevent secondary fermentation of the remaining sugar. In France, a sweet red wine is a flaw in that the wine has not finished its fermentation process.  For some sensitive wine drinkers, added sulphites may cause migraines or head-aches. If the quantity of ingested wine is reasonable, then the cause may be that these drinkers may have SNPs. Added sulfites are usually not a problem. But if a wine drinker has migraines after drinking wine, especially with white wines, then drinking wines that have no sulfites  added (or as little as needed) can help. Drinking with a Fiber-rich meal also helps.  White wines are more fragile than red wines, so they tend to have more sulfites. A typical dry white wine may have around 100 mg/L of sulfites whereas a typical dry red wine will have around 50–75 mg/L. Wines with higher sugar content tend to need more sulfites to prevent secondary fermentation of the remaining sugar. In France, a sweet red wine is a flaw in that the wine has not finished its fermentation process. Wine contains natural sulfites and histamines. Histamines help to activate the gastric juices, so this is a healthy biological process. But some drinkers may be extra sensitive to histamines. Holistic solutions exist. Wine contains natural sulfites and histamines. Histamines help to activate the gastric juices, so this is a healthy biological process. But some drinkers may be extra sensitive to histamines. Holistic solutions exist.
(7). Furthermore, many “cheap” wines contain  many heavy metals and toxicants like lead, cadmium and glyphosate. When the body gets saturated with heavy metals, deleterious EMFs like those that come  from cell-phone towers get amplified, thereby becoming even more toxic to living cells. Migraines and tinnitus can also come from this condition.  Ethanol has specifically been found in functional assays to enhance or inhibit the activity of a variety of ion channels that are connected to migraines and other health conditions, in particular with regard to the GABAreceptor, the ionotropic glutamateAMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors, the glycine receptor,the  nicotinic acetylcholine receptors,[the serotonin5-HT3receptor, voltage-gated calcium channels, and BK channels, among others. (Source) However, many of these actions have been found to occur only at very high concentrations that may not be pharmacologically significant at recreational doses of ethanol.  (Source) 
(8). Christianity’s fundamental principles have also highlighted the importance of drinking wine with food, whatever the time. In Church, small amounts of wine is served with small amounts of bread. On the other hand, drinking wine when deeply stressed out, depressed or exhausted can be damaging and lead to addiction. Intense stress produces certain neuropeptides and hormones like cortisol that can react in a compromising way when alcoholic beverages are simultaneously consumed. Upon ingestion, ethanol is rapidly distributed throughout the body. It is distributed most rapidly to tissues with the greatest blood supply. As such, ethanol primarily affects the brain, liver, and kidneys. Other tissues with lower circulation, such as bone, require more time for ethanol to distribute into. Ethanol crosses biological membranes and the blood–brain barrier easily, through a simple process of passive diffusion. It is only weakly or not at all plasma protein bound,
(9). In the liver, ethanol is converted into the harmless acetic acid (vinegar) by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is more toxic than alcohol and is responsible for most of the hangover symptoms. (Source) Acetaldehyde is prevalent in biology and Modern society, including, but not limited to the air, soil and food, including ripe fruits. Because this molecule has been with us (Nature) for millions of years (like mercury spewing from volcanoes), evolutionary and molecular biology  has fine-tuned human metabolism and genetic expression in order to activate safe and efficient detoxification pathways. As a result, going “bananas” or “thermodynamics” as some teetotalers do,  who consider any alcoholic beverage to be anathema or “evil” is an attitude that is not consistent with Science and healthy longevity, if only because the benefits of quality wine outweighs its risks, and all the more so that most human beings have the proper  alcohol and acetaldehyde converting enzymes (ie, like beta-carotene enzymes that convert this molecule to vitamin A) If the wine drinker respects and activates the Institute’s wine drinking principles and still has migraines and other “dis-ease symptoms”, (1) then he or she may have dehydrogenase and ADH gene variants, including with ADH1B and/or ALDH2 risk alleles. Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and then into acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetate, unlike acetaldehyde, is harmless and may even be responsible for some of the positive health benefits of some of alcohol’s consumption. Thus,  the key to reducing alcohol-related damage in the body lies in minimizing the amount of time acetaldehyde is present in the body. Other symptoms can include severe abdominal and urinary tract cramping, hot and cold flashes, profuse sweating, and profound malaise  Cf.  Macgregor S., Lind P. A., Bucholz K. K., Hansell N. K., Madden P. A. F., Richter M. M., Montgomery G. W., Martin N. G., Heath A. C., Whitfield J. B. (2008.) “Associations of ADHand ALDH2gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis”, Human Molecular Genetics, 18(3):580-93.
(10). The evidence that genetic mutations of circadian clock genes  andsingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of clock genes in humans are associated with increased alcohol consumption. (Kovanen et al). Due to the temporal nature of alcohol consumption and the circadian nature of liver metabolism, the time of day at which alcohol is consumed likely influences tissue injury and disease. In fact, the liver (and other organs) should be thought of as a completely different organ at different times of the day. As such, it is very easy to envision that exposure to a metabolic stress, like alcohol, at different times of the day would have different metabolic and pathological outcomes. Indeed, the importance of time on pathological outcomes was recently highlighted in studies showing that the time-of-day of fat intake altered key cardiometabolic parameters. Consumption of a high fat diet at the end of the active phase of the day (in mice) increases adiposity, dyslipidemia, and cardiac dysfunction and disrupts hepatic metabolism. In a similar way, evidence has shown that excessive alcohol candisrupt clock rhythms in the liver, and desynchronizes the liver clock from the primary, central SCN clock. It’s important to understand that the circadian clock confines different metabolic programs to metabolically necessary times of the day. This is accomplished by coordinated cycling of clock activators and repressors. (Source) As a result, the timing of energy metabolism (storage and utilization) is synchronized to nutrient intake in order to ensure proper cellular physiology.
(10b). By swirling a half filled wine glass, alcohol evaporates in an accelerated fashing. Contrarily to half filled wine glasses that have lids, half filled wine glasses that are exposed to the air lose via evaporation some of their ethanol content.  (Source)
(11). Movement can help to increase acetaldehyde’s metabolism,  studies corroborate that alcohol elimination rate increases with enhanced body temperature and exercises, if only because of the catecholamine release and the enhancement of the detoxificaton pathways. Dancing is therefore indicated. When confronted with a hangover, taking a cold and hot shower helps both wine metabolism and the excretion of acetaldehyde. Likewise with eating. It is always best to drink wine and eat either as an appreciative “monk” bathed in an atmosphere of silence or a social and enthusiastic “monkey” who is well surrounded in a supporting and fun community. This is one of the reasons why the Medicinal Wine Institute teaches how to reduce stress holistically, without wine. Thereafter, the wine experience and its health benefits are hightened.
(12). It would appear that the preponderance of the evidence confirms that drinking unholistically carries significant risks.  But these risks pertain especially to quantity and wine’s quality. There are also risks of dying by drinking too much water, even good quality water,  or by taking in too much oxygen. Even downing very hot water has been shown to be a significant risk factor for throat cancer. Likewise with sarcomas, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease  with regard to trauma sports. Whenever a tissue is repetitively  irritated, genetic damage and mutations can veer toward carcinogenesis and other inflammatory conditions, notwithstanding the six DNA repair systems most humans are equipped with.

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